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Warpage measurements, coplanarity & thermal expansion

The Insidix TDM (Topography and Deformation Measurement) system is a tool capable of identifying weaknesses or failure risks resulting from thermal stress before physical damage.


Electronic systems, with increasingly complex components and assemblies, contain a large variety of different materials. Each part responds differently to the increasingly high heat levels introduced during assembly or in the normal operation of the system. These differential responses to heat variations create internal stress that may result in a variety of failures, such as delaminations inside the IC’s, incomplete soldering of BGA solder ball arrays (contacts poorly soldered or open), premature aging of solder joints with increased risk of rupture, etc.


Even before physical failure occurs, the thermal stress experienced by the components or assemblies gives rise to volume deformation (“warpage”), which can be considered a precursor of failure, in other words a failure risk indicator. The TDM system was designed to identify failure risks and improve the reliability of products.  TDM can accurately replicate the thermal profiles and cycles that the components or assemblies will actually experience during the production process and in normal use or even aging tests. Throughout the thermal cycle, TDM measures the 3D deformation related to the imposed thermal stress : warpage, coplanarity, thermal expansion or dilatation (CTE). 

TDM system combines a powerful heating and cooling chamber (temperature range -60°C … +300°C) with a real time acquisition of the 3D topography of samples (from 2x2 mm up to 400×400×50 mm). In particular, strongly structured samples like TSOP components with their several tens of tiny connectors or even PGA bottom sides with their hundreds of 2-3 mm long pins are resolved with the same accuracy as simple flat BGA top sides.



TDM topography acquisition is based on the Projection Moiré principle, non-contact and with no grating: Structured light is projected onto the sample. The image is captured by a CCD camera. The striped pattern seen by the camera is characteristic of the sample’s surface structure.



The TDM system has heating and cooling elements on both sides of the sample. Additionally, top and bottom side heating elements feature independent feedback loops for temperature measurement (by thermocouples) and regulation, resulting in perfect homogeneity of top and bottom side sample temperatures. The target temperature profile can be programmed to fit any type of application. User defined temperature profiles with heating gradients up to +3°C/s and cooling gradients down to -6°C/s may be imposed, within a temperature range of -60°C up to +300°C. The specified temperature homogeneity is +/-5°C on the entire sample (top and bottom side), and the typically obtained temperature homogeneity is significantly better.


The TDM system permits the identification of failure risks in an early stage of the development process. The benefits to the customer relate to reduced development time, reduced time to market, reduced failures and increased reliability of both the assembly process and the product during its operating lifetime.


Applications :

-          Production control

-          Standards : J-Std-020, JESD22-B112, IPC-9641

-          Failure Analyses : solder issues, component / PCB

-          Qualification and design

-          Check or implement FEM, FEA models

-          Assembly strain


Fields :

-          Electronic

-          Medical

-          Automotive, space, aeronautics

-          Metallurgy

-          Optics and optronic

-          Mechanical parts

-          Composite, ceramics

-          R&D

Examples of papers :

  •      EMPC 2013

 An emerging approach to decrease model development time and errors is to use real measurements data to implement the models. This way unknown parameters like mechanical properties of adhesives or strength of interface can be adjusted by matching experimental and modeling results.


  •      EDFAS Journal 2011

 TSOP Contact Level Topography Analysis during Reflow
 High Pin Count BGA Ball Coplanarity
 Component Solder Conditions Optimization
 Component-to-PCB Stress Transfer

  •     EUROSIME 2011

Determination of Strength of Interface in Packages

  •     ESTC 2010

 Component Warpage
 Component - PCB Stress Transfer
 Component -PCB CTE Mismatch